In-Depth Guide


The Researcher’s Guide to Working with Human and Mouse Macrophages

As the “Big Eaters” of the immune system, macrophages have a large appetite for harmful pathogens. With various roles in both innate and adaptive immunity, there are abundant opportunities to learn more from these versatile cells.

This guide contains some of our most popular content requested by scientists and researchers in multiple fields. Read below for thought-provoking blog posts, engaging webinars, step-by-step research protocols, and more from our immune cell experts.

By Anne Lodge, Ph.D.

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The Mysterious World of Macrophages (Webinar)

Macrophages can produce a wide range of cytokines and chemokines to influence the immune response toward healing or inflammation.

Learn best practices for working with macrophages in both mouse and human models to study the production of cytokines and chemokines that influence the immune response.

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How to Differentiate Monocytes into Osteoclasts (Blog Post)

There are published methods for differentiating monocytes into osteoclasts and characterizing the cells to declare that they are osteoclasts definitively. Such methods call for growth of the cells with recombinant human RANK-L and recombinant human M-CSF for 17 days, adding fresh medium every 3 days.

After some initial testing, we found that the method mentioned above was not perfect. We further experimented to find the optimal number of cells and the amount of culture time required for differentiation.

We fine-tuned published methods to meet our customer’s needs.

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What’s the Different Between M1 and M2 Macrophages? (Blog Post)

m1 and m2 differences

Source: Tamás Rőszer, “Understanding the Mysterious M2 Macrophage through Activation Markers and Effector Mechanisms,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2015, Article ID 816460, 16 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/816460

M1 macrophages are classically activated, typically by IFN-γ or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and produce proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytize microbes, and initiate an immune response. M1 macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) to protect against bacteria and viruses.

M2 macrophages are alternatively activated by exposure to certain cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13. M2 macrophages will produce either polyamines to induce proliferation or proline to induce collagen production. These macrophages are associated with wound healing and tissue repair.

Learn more about the current accepted classifications of macrophages, the differences between the M1 and M2 varieties, and tips for converting monocytes to macrophages.

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Culture of Human Monocytes (Protocol)

Human monocytes can be cultured to create macrophages or dendritic cells. Culture conditions affect cell function and phenotype, so be sure to follow our best practices.

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Monocytes vs. Macrophages (Blog Post)

Monocytes and macrophages are very closely related cells with a few important distinctions and different use cases. Put simply, monocytes are macrophages in the blood; macrophages are monocytes in tissue.

Understand the differences and use cases for each.

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Publications Featuring Cellero Monocytes (Research Articles)

Access a range of journal articles referencing our monocyte products.

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What’s the Best Medium for Culturing Macrophages? (Blog Post)

Culture media questions are common here at Cellero. Luckily, we’ve done the research for you! Explore the effects that your culture media selection can have on both human and mouse macrophages.

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Mouse Bone Marrow Cell Culture (Protocol)

This protocol describes how to convert mouse bone marrow cells to macrophages, dendritic cells, or mast cells.

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