Tetanus toxoid

Size: 100 μg/vial
Price: $ 150.00
In Stock: 213
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Donor Details

Anticoagulant : Unknown

Additional Product Information:

Description:
Tetanus toxoid is an inactivated form of tetanus toxin. Tetanus toxin is an exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani and is the agent responsible for "lockjaw". Tetanus toxin binds to presynaptic membranes and is internalized by nerves. The toxin is then transported to the central nervous system through retrograde axonal transport within the neuron. In the CNS, the toxin blocks neurotransmitter release leading to the muscle spasms characteristic of tetanus.
Molecular Weight: 150 kD
Structure: Two subunits, one heavy chain of 100 kD and a light chain of 50 kD joined by a disulfide bond.
Storage: Store at 2-8oC.   Mix well just before use.
Activity: Maximum T cell stimulation observed at 1 ug/mL.
Note:This preparation includes alum. It is suitable for in vitro stimulation of immune cells but may not be suitable for other uses.
References: Alan W. Bernheimer, ed. Perspectives in Toxinology, c.1977 Wiley, New York.
 
FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY. NOT FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE.

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About Whole Antigens

Our whole antigen products are proteins and viral lysates that stimulate in vitro immune responses from all donors who have been sensitized to the antigen. This eliminates the choice of a dominant peptide or protein allowing you to use one antigen for all donors.

The majority of the U.S. population is immunized with tetanus toxoid and 30–40% of the population is positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), making these two antigens good choices for use in recall assays.

We offer various antigens to stimulate cells, all tested for bioactivity using our PBMC. Our three recall antigens can be used to study different types of immunological memory: cytomegalovirus (CMV), tetanus, and M1.

CMV Antigens: PBMC activation by CMV antigen usually indicates a donor who is seropositive for CMV, though we have observed stimulation of PBMC from seronegative donors. CMV establishes a latent infection and is contained by the immune system in healthy CMV positive donors. This results in a relatively large population of CMV-reactive T lymphocytes, both CD4+ and CD8+.

Tetanus Antigens: The tetanus antigen is complexed with alum but stimulates PBMC proliferation well. Most individuals are vaccinated with this antigen and therefore have an immune response to it. The magnitude of the response varies among donors depending on their immune status, age, and time since last tetanus vaccination. Because of the presence of alum, this preparation may not be suitable for uses other than in vitro immune responses.

M1 Antigens: The M1 peptide is an immunodominant epitope from influenza virus, but only for donors who express HLA-A*0201. We have observed reactivity to this antigen preparation, but only after a 7–10 day culture period. Unlike CMV, influenza virus is cleared from the body following infection, so the immune response to the antigen wanes after infection. This antigen will only stimulate CD8+ T cells, not CD4+ T cells.

As we add antigen-specific T cells to our catalog, we also add their cognate peptide antigens.